The discovery of the Americas, once known as “The New World” led to many new products which in turn led to modern day society. Certain new foods were introduced to European culture, while tobacco and sugar became huge cash crops. Not to be forgotten was the importance of cotton as an American export. Previously, clothing was made of coarse linen, heavy wool, or expensive silk. Cotton provided an inexpensive and versatile fabric, comfortable and durable, and has since become a key aspect of fashion and clothing design across the world.
To start at the end of the story, Eli Whitney invented the working cotton gin and patented it in 1794. At the time, farmers understood the need for such a machine as a means to keep production levels at pace with other industries and maintain supply over demand necessary to maintain sales of cotton rather than allowing other fabrics to take the market. Other inventors had made similar devices, some even worked with small scale production, but raw cotton is “sticky” and would clog up such machines. They did speed up production, but due to the need for constant cleaning and maintenance they didn’t really work at a commercial level.
When Eli Whitney’s cotton gin hit the market as a working machine for cotton production by removing seeds and stalks from the usable portion of the plant, it became an immediate success with Southern farmers. It worked especially well with certain strains of cotton grown in the United States, including varieties which grew better in Mississippi and the ones which grew better in Virginia soil. It was easily modified to work with more tropical varieties of cotton grown in central and South America. Previously, separation of cotton required both skilled and menial labor as a difficult task to perform on a daily basis.
How does the cotton gin work in regards to its economic impact? The economic advantages are simple to explain, technology allowed for higher cotton production which in turn equals more profit for cotton farmers. It allowed self-sufficient farmers who grew cotton as a side crop to pay bills and become middle class people with a steady income while joining a larger economic base with more purchasing power. This, in turn, led to a larger market for cotton as textile factories and international companies vied for the raw material produced by cotton farmers using the cotton gin to meet demand for the product. Cotton farmers remained self-reliant rural people, yet became aware of how larger economic systems were at play and affected their daily lives.
Although the cotton gin helped cotton production and the importance of such to the early American economy, it would be tone-deaf and remiss not to mention the effects of the cotton gin on the institution of slavery in America. There was no machinery at the time to actually pick the cotton, which is hard, grueling, physical labor when done by hand. In order to keep up with the demand for raw cotton the cotton gin was able to turn into usable product, more slaves were needed to work longer hours. As much of an atrocity as American slavery was, at the time nobody thought to invent a machine designed to help harvest the crop, slaves did that. The cotton gin came about because of the need to process the crop and increase sales and therefore, profit.
An impact of the cotton gin which is often overlooked is how it was made by assembling mass produced interchangeable parts, which led to:
- Factory production assembly lines, often credited to Henry Ford in 1914, were already recognized as a legitimate means of increasing individual worker proficiency.
- The cotton gin brought northern steel factory industry techniques to Southern farmers, who quickly realized the advantages offered by mass production techniques over menial labor.
- The reliance on such machinery forced farms to become profitable rather than supplying annual consumption need for a single family and their local neighbors.
- Arguably, such concepts led to the paradigm shift in which Americans took on broader standards and recognized how to better their own lives by marketing to a larger audience; the profits generated by higher production allowed the individual farmer to live a “better” life and provide for the needs of a larger community.
Today’s farm equipment is much different than what was available in 1794 when Eli Whitney introduced the first working cotton gin. Today’s cotton gins utilize the same basic design, but are run by tractors or heavy motors and engines in a shop instead of being cranked by hand or perhaps drawn by a horse. Certi-Pik provides replacement parts certified by John Deere and Case IH Cotton Picking Machinery as appropriate aftermarket parts. Our parts fit other brands as well, contact us to find out how we can suit your needs with repair and replacement parts for your machinery.