Importance of Frameworks in web development
The need to have frameworks owes its existence to those days when most browsers were not compliant with the standardized CSS specifications. Subsequently, there was the creation of CSS tests and the story goes long to date. Frameworks were created to make website development easier by offering a structure for application development.
What are Python frameworks
Python is one of the fastest-growing major programming languages, while Django and Flask are the Python frameworks that are most popular at the current time.
Some famous top 10 Python applications
Types of Python frameworks
Mainly there are three types of frameworks over which various frameworks developed, so let’s have a look over them –
Full Stack Frameworks
These kinds of frameworks are called an enterprise framework, as it provides an all-in-one solution with configured libraries working together seamlessly. Due to their ability to support overall both front-end and back-end interfaces along with databases, they are called Full-Stack Frameworks. In short, such frameworks provide everything a developer needs to build an app. Full-Stack Frameworks are generally used in bigger applications due to having MVC architecture.
Such frameworks are web application framework that works without many things that are present over a full-fledged framework like a web template engine, an authentication function, input validation, and database abstraction. The overall Python micro-web framework requires a minimal amount of coding and it comes with only those kinds of stuff that are necessary for an application. Although there can be some exceptions that come with a full-stack solution, like database or template engines.
Asynchronous frameworks use non-blocking sockets and work on the async io library of Python. It is a framework that provisions to handle large sets of concurrent connections and the main concept these frameworks follow is before a task gets completed a new task can start running. Moreover, the app needs not to execute tasks consequently.
List of top 10 Python frameworks to learn
Django is an open-source full-stack framework that tries to include all of the necessary features by default compared to other frameworks that offer them as separate libraries. Django is a fast, scalable, and extremely versatile framework due to various properties which encompasses the properties of authorization, routing, template engine, Object Relational Mapper (ORM), and database schema migration.
Django uses ORM to map objects to database tables and the main databases with which it works are PostgreSQL, SQLite, MySQL, Oracle, and with third-party drivers, one can use others too.
The user base of Django is expected to grow more as Django is the developer’s first choice when it comes to working with emerging technologies such as machine learning. Django allows creating any sort of web application, right from small ones to the bigger complex ones. Even to craft MVPs, Django is the first choice as it allows start-ups to optimize their budget and time.
The Pyramid is an open-source Python web application framework, which bags the second place as it can do as much as possible with minimum complexity. Pyramid can accommodate applications of any size and can also be used to create complex applications which is the most striking feature of it. Pyramid allows the developers to decide on the templating language, generation libraries, and database layer. The Pyramid has a community that is active and consists of many releases. Where developers can begin by joining the official IRC channel or joining Google and Twitter groups to follow the framework’s progress.
Flask comes under the category of Python micro web frameworks, which are available under the BSD license. Flask as a framework was motivated by the Sinatra Ruby framework and it relies upon the Werkzeug WSGI toolbox and Jinja2 template. The main aim for which Flask comes is to help build solid web applications, as it allows one to choose any extensions needed. Flask can be said as the default choice for any web project which doesn’t match Django.
Flask comes with a modular design and is lightweight, therefore it is adaptable to the needs of the developer. Flask has many out of the box features and since its launch, it has been updated 27 times. All these make Flask, one of the top Python frameworks which are growing.
CherryPy is a minimalist and open-source Python web framework, which employs its multi hung server. CherryPy allows developers to develop web applications much similar to building any other object-oriented programs with small source code in less time. CherryPy comes with major features just like any other typical framework has capabilities such as session handling, file uploading, static content, cookies, encoding, caching, authentication, etc. CherryPy has a community to back, which provides assistance to beginners and advanced developers alike, also it has a mailing list and suggests developers join the framework’s IRC channel and Google groups. In spite of having such features and advantages, there are many developers who feel that CherryPy could have more improvement done in the documentation and easier to use.
Right to its name Falcon is a lightweight Python web API framework for the project those require the coding and development of REST APIs. Falcon allows developers to create much cleaner designs that are able to handle most requests. While choosing libraries for databases and authorization in Falcon there are no restrictions. The functions of upfront exception handling and idiomatic HTTP error responses and supports unit testing with WSGI helpers and mocks make it cherry on the top. Additionally, there are extensive documentation available and an active community for support.
Bottle is a Python micro web framework, which is originally meant to developing APIs, as it implements everything in a single source file. Bottle comes with some features which are unique like routing, templating, and abstraction over the WSGI standard. Bottle is a recommended framework only if one’s requirement is of crafting a very small application, as it permits up to 500 lines of code with no special requirements. Bottle has gone through umpteen number of updates and in its current avatar it is perfectly suited for prototyping, learning the organization of web frameworks, and building simple personal apps.
Bottle mailing list can be joined and if anyone wishes to contribute to the Bottle community, it is accepted through GitHub.
Dash is an open-source Python framework that is categorized as an asynchronous framework, usually used to develop analytical web applications. One can build highly interactive applications using only Python code and the power of Python tools for manipulating data is simple with Dash. Applications made on Dash interact with JSON packets over HTTP requests and run Flask. Data scientists who are not much familiar with web development can use Dash to their ease. Dash-developed apps are rendered in the web-browser, which can be easily deployed to the servers, thus applications crafted with Dash are cross-platform friendly and mobile-ready.
Dash developers have full access to Flask plugins and all their configurable properties to extend the capabilities of Dash applications.
FastAPI is a modern Python micro-framework, compared to other frameworks, which is used to develop APIs. FastAPI borrows many characteristics from Flask and it is built on Starlette ASGI. The features it includes are templates, WebSockets, and GraphQL support. FastAPI supports any database, but at the same time is not chained to any database and one is free to structure the project the way they want. The only drawback that comes with FastAPI is that, as it is a new framework, it consists of a small community available for support.
Web2py is an open-source full-stack Python framework that is highly scalable and it follows the Python MVC framework. Web2py comes with its own web-based IDE, other than that it includes a code editor, debugger, one-click deployment tool which is useful for developing, testing, debugging, and maintaining applications.
The main feature of Web2py is the ticketing system, which issues tickets whenever errors occur, as though this one can track errors along with their status. In spite of all these advantages which Web2py provides, its community is much smaller compared to other frameworks like Django or Pyramid, and their official mailing list too not much active.
Tornado as a Python web framework was originally developed by a company named FriendFeed, which was later overtaken by Facebook. Tornado an asynchronous networking library, focuses on speed and mainly the ability to handle traffic in large volumes. Tornado can handle around 10,000+ concurrent connections, if configured properly, therefore it makes a great tool to build applications that require high performance. The implementation of third-party authentication by developers such as Google and Twitter OpenID/OAuth, Yahoo BBAuth, and Facebook Login, are allowed by Tornado.
If we take popularity into consideration then Tornado comes in between Django and Flask, as people who need better performance must choose Tornado.
So, now the question arises that out of all these, which Python framework is the best choice? There are even more frameworks available in Python apart from those mentioned here and each Python framework has its own unique properties and features. Again, it is up to the developer to choose what framework he wishes to adapt as per his convenience and from those above-described frameworks, one or the other will be suitable as per one’s requirement.
Hope you would have liked the descriptions about each framework and can even start learning Python frameworks, as there are many exciting career options for a Python developer.