WHY 2021 NEEDS YOU TO MAKE A POLKADOT DAPP?
Polkadot is a fast-growing ecosystem that will allow parachains to communicate with each other. Interoperability and scalability like this will propel blockchain technology forward and solve a slew of issues (e.g., low TPS, high transaction fees, and hard forks etc.).
One of the most popular markets for dApp development is Ethereum DeFi. Ethereum chain operability and transaction costs are becoming more acute as the number of dApps grows. Polkadot’s scalable and interoperable ecosystem makes it a strong contender for Ethereum DeFi’s future migration.
The assertion’s validity has already been demonstrated by adopting innovative technologies such as the RIO Chain. It’s designed as a Polkadot parachain with ready-to-use tools for developing DeFi dApps on the platform. You may also create dApps on Substrate-based chains or use Moonbeam or Edgeware to deploy smart contracts.
Blockchain app builder is used to design apps with the help of substrate and polkadot.
Polkadot Initial Integration:
The following sorts of Polkadot launches are possible:
- Building a parachain for Polkadot
- Building dApp on Substrate-based blockchain
- Creating a cross-chain bridge (from your current solution to one of Polkadot’s parachains)
These are generalized examples that divide a large number of options into three categories.
1. Creating a parachain for Polkadot
Let’s clarify what a parachain is and how it differs from operating an independent blockchain before adopting this method and beginning parachain development.
Polkadot is a blockchain ecosystem that is highly scalable and secure.
Those blockchains, however, are parachains.
The primary distinction between them is that they both have shared security.
Any parachain that is established must be linked to the Relay Chain (the main chain of Polkadot).
The Relay chain will also offer parachain security and a guarantee of safe cross-chain communication (XCMP) across all linked parachains in the system, in addition to this connection.
Thus, the Polkadot ecosystem ensures that the desired interoperability and scalability of all chains together.
Consequently, you can access parachain development in Rust language.
Generally, you can use a custom blockchain development in any language (C++, Go, or Java).
If a particular interface is respected, you can connect it as a parachain.
Yet, to ease development, Polkadot provides PDKs (which stands for Parachain Development Kit).
Essential toolkits for developing Polkadot Parcahains.
- Substrate 2.0.0.
- Polkadot source code
- WASM interpreter and compiler to WASM
Source of information: https://blaize.tech/article-type/how-to-launch-a-project-on-polkadot-dapp-parachain-and-bridge/
Substrate technology includes all of the modules and frames required for a self-contained chain development. However, it lacks the essential Polkadot compatibility capability.
As a result, you should begin utilising the Cumulus library as soon as the main chain architecture is complete. When you import a Substrate-based chain into the library, Cumulus will add the appropriate parachain code. As a result, it’s compatible with the Polkadot ecosystem.
A testnet inspection is required to examine a new-build parachain. Rococo, one of the most popular Polkadot testnets, was built to suit the requirements of parachains testing.
2. Polkadot DAPP development
Polkadot draws many brains willing to create dApps within its network, claiming a breakthrough in operability and scalability. It’s especially appealing to open finance developers who want to build a comprehensive DeFi market on Polkadot.
Firstly, you should be aware that the Polkadot Relay chain does not support any intelligent contract framework. The random state transitions put into parachains, on the other hand, provide this support.
For the time being, it is advised that you use one of the existing technologies while preparing your future Polkadot dApp so that it is ready when the parachain begins.
Smart contracts are essential for the development of any decentralized application. Although the Polkadot system is complicated and multi-tiered,
there are a few methods to use smart contracts on the platform:
- Create smart contracts in any WASM-compliant language (Java, Go, etc.)
- Create a dApp using the Substrate EVM palette.
- Create a dApp using the Substrate Ink contracts palette.
We’ll utilize the third option to show how to create a dApp that can be easily integrated with a Polkadot parachain in the future.
Essential toolkits for Polkadot DAPP development
- Substrate 2.0.0.
- ! Ink
- WASM interpreter and compiler to WASM
Substrate FRAME is a code library that stores ready-to-use modules (or pallets) for using Substrate to create your own unique blockchain. On top of it, one may build a decentralised app by combining selected modules into the framework’s “runtime.” You may consider deploying smart contracts to the live environment for your dApp. Moonbeam and Edgeware are the two most popular options for running smart contracts in the Polkadot environment right now.
Edgeware is a Substrate-based chain that will, in the near future, connect to the Relay Chain as one of the Polkadot parachains. It allows smart contracts to operate while being further compiled into WASM.
Edgeware is a great way to test out contracts created with the Substrate FRAME library’s contracts pallet.
Consider a Moonbeam smart contract solution if you’ve picked the Substrate EVM pallet. Frontier is an interoperable layer that contains the current Ethereum toolset. All application contracts designed for the EVM environment will be supported by the Moonbeam platform. You can only use one of Polkadot’s parachains to deploy smart contracts. You may, however, create your own Substrate-based node to host your own dApp.
3. Constructing a cross-chain connection (from your existing solution to one of Polkadot’s parachains):
The third option for connecting to the Polkadot ecosystem is to build a cross-chain bridge. There are essentially two options: make a bridge for your existing solution or provide bridge-as-a-service between two decentralized protocols.
A cross-chain bridge is a technical term for an app that allows tokens to be “transferred” between two blockchains. Smart contracts which are on both sides of the bridge and a decentralized network of independent validators are used to transfer.
Tokens are traveling (or transferring) between chains or protocols, according to the cross-chain bridge concept. The smart contract burns tokens on one chain and mints them on the other when a money transfer request is made.
The contract requires the signature of a subset of validators who operate the bridge to complete any transaction. As a result, the bridge works similarly to a multi-sig contract. When one of the contracts receives a money transfer request, the relayers (validators) should create a vote on the transaction and allow token minting on the other side of the bridge.
CONSTRUCTION OF A BRIDGE WITH SUBSTRATE
The Substrate framework comes with a comprehensive set of components and pallets for constructing bridges.
We’ll create a relay bridge from Ethereum to Polkadot as an example. Because!Ink is the dominant language for smart contracts on Substrate, we chose it. We can use Rust instead, which isn’t as inconvenient.
Components of a relay bridge:
As previously stated, smart contracts should be created on both sides of the bridge.
2.Pallets of Substrate:
We utilise the following Substrate pallets for cross-chain bridge implementation: synchronising header pallet, arbitrary messages pallet, and relayer pallet.
3. Validator application:
The validator programme is one of the most essential aspects of this development. This should take into consideration factors like the amount of validators (relayers) and the threshold that has been set for them. The threshold is the maximum number of validators necessary to authorise a transaction.
For example, if this bridge has five relayers and the threshold value is three, the transaction will be accepted after three confirmations without the need to wait for the remaining ones.
Another important aspect of the validator’s programme development is the daily restriction. You can set the precise amount of cash that can be sent to one side every day by enabling this option.
4.User interface for the application (UI):
You’ll need a dApp to communicate with both ends of the bridge and the smart contracts they contain. This is how the bridge will help the end-user by allowing them to “transfer” cash from one chain to another. Existing Ethereum-based DeFi protocols should think about building a Polkadot cross-chain bridge. This sort of development is quicker than creating a new dApp and has a lot of interaction possibilities. You can link to existing Moonbeam contracts and build a bridge from the present solution to a Polkadot parachain. Similar cross-chain solutions have already been offered by projects like Akropolis, Chainsafe, and Snowfork.