What is the Difference between electric motors?

As we know, an electric motor plays a vital role in every sector of industry, and also in a wide variety of applications. There are different types of electric motors on the market. The selection of these motors can be done based on the operation and voltage and applications. Every motor has two essential parts namely the field winding and the armature winding. ​The main function of field winding is to produce the fixed magnetic field while the armature winding looks like a conductor arranged within the magnetic field. Due to the magnetic field, the armature winding uses energy to generate enough torque to rotate the motor shaft. Currently, the classification of DC motor can be done based on the winding connections, which means how the two coils in the motor are connected together.

Types of Electric Motors

The types of electric motors are available in three main segments such as AC motor, DC motor and special purpose motors.

DC motors

The types of DC motors mainly include series, shunt and compound wound and PMDC motors.

1). DC shunt motor

DC shunt motor runs on DC and the windings of this electric motor such as the armature windings and field windings are connected in parallel which is known as a shunt. For more information, please refer to   

2). Separately wound motor

With a motor separately excited, the connection of stator and rotor can be done with another power supply so that the motor can be controlled from the shunt and the armature winding can be strengthened to generate flux.

3). DC series motor

In DC series motor, rotor windings are connected in series. The working principle of this electric motor mainly depends on a simple electromagnetic law. 

4). PMDC motor

The term PMDC stands for ‘Permanent Magnet DC motor’. It is a kind of DC motor that can be built-in with a permanent magnet to make the magnetic field necessary for the electric motor to operate. 

5). DC Composite Motor

In general, DC compound motor is a hybrid part of DC series and shunt motors. With this type of motor, both the fields such as series and shunt are present. In this type of electric motor, the stator and rotor can be connected together via a series and shunt winding connection. 

AC motors

The types of AC motors mainly include synchronous, asynchronous induction motors.

1). Synchronous motor

The operation of the synchronous motor mainly depends on the three-phase power supply. The stator in the electric motor generates the field current, which rotates at a stable speed based on the alternating current frequency. As well as the rotor depends on the comparable speed of the stator current.

2). Induction motor

The electric motor running at asynchronous speed is known as induction motor, and an alternative name for this motor is the asynchronous motor. The induction motor mainly uses electromagnetic induction to change the energy from electrical to mechanical. Based on the rotor construction, these motors are classified into two types, namely, squirrel cage and phase wound. 


Nishi Singh is a professional journalist and editor in New Delhi. She has studied Mass Communication from National Institute of Mass Communication.