What Is Borderline Personality Disorder? An Overview

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a mental health condition that affects approximately 1.6% of adults in the United States. BPD is characterized by unstable moods, behavior, and relationships. People with BPD struggle to regulate their emotions, leading to impulsive and sometimes self-destructive behavior. BPD can be difficult to diagnose, and people living with the condition often face stigma and misunderstandings about their experiences.

In this article, we will provide a comprehensive overview of Borderline Personality Disorder, including its symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment options. We will also discuss how to support someone with BPD and how to reduce the stigma surrounding the condition.

Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder

BPD is characterized by a pattern of intense emotions, unstable relationships, distorted self-image, and impulsive behaviors. Individuals with BPD often struggle to regulate their emotions and may experience intense episodes of anger, anxiety, or depression. They may also engage in impulsive behaviors, such as substance abuse, self-harm, or reckless driving.

BPD also affects how individuals view themselves and others. People with BPD may have a distorted self-image and may struggle with feelings of emptiness, worthlessness, or insecurity. They may also experience intense and unstable relationships, frequently alternating between idealizing and devaluing others.

Other common symptoms of BPD include a fear of abandonment, a tendency to take extreme measures to avoid abandonment, and difficulty trusting others. Individuals with BPD may also experience dissociation or depersonalization, a sense of detachment from reality or one’s own body.

It’s important to note that not everyone with BPD experiences all of these symptoms, and that BPD can look different from person to person. However, if you or someone you know is experiencing intense and persistent symptoms that are impacting daily life and relationships, it may be helpful to seek professional support. With the right treatment and support, individuals with BPD can manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder

The causes of BPD are not well understood, but research suggests that a combination of genetic, biological, and environmental factors may contribute to its development. Some factors that may increase the risk of developing BPD include:

  • Genetics – Studies suggest that BPD may be heritable, meaning that it can be passed down from parents to children.
  • Brain chemistry – People with BPD may have abnormalities in certain brain areas that regulate emotion and impulse control.
  • Trauma – Many people with BPD report a history of childhood trauma, including physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, neglect, or abandonment.
  • Environmental factors – Growing up in an unstable or chaotic environment can also increase the risk of developing BPD.

Diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder

Diagnosing BPD can be challenging, as the symptoms of the disorder overlap with those of other mental health conditions. A qualified mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist, should perform a comprehensive assessment to determine if someone has BPD. The assessment may include a clinical interview, a review of medical and psychiatric history, and psychological testing.

Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder

BPD is a treatable condition, but it often requires a comprehensive approach that may include therapy, medication, and lifestyle changes. Some common treatment options for BPD include:


Psychotherapy is a common and effective treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Different types of therapy may be used, but the most widely studied and commonly used is Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). DBT is a form of cognitive-behavioral therapy that focuses on teaching individuals with BPD how to regulate their emotions, cope with stress, and improve interpersonal relationships.

DBT is typically delivered in individual and group therapy sessions over a period of several months to years. The therapy includes four key components: individual therapy, group skills training, phone coaching, and consultation with a therapist.

Individual therapy focuses on helping the person with BPD identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors. The therapist works with the individual to set goals, monitor progress, and problem-solve obstacles to treatment.

Group skills training is typically conducted in a group setting and covers four key areas: mindfulness, emotion regulation, distress tolerance, and interpersonal effectiveness. These skills are designed to help individuals with BPD learn how to manage their emotions, cope with stress, and communicate effectively with others.


Antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotic medication may be helpful in treating specific symptoms of BPD, such as depression or anxiety.

Lifestyle changes

Engaging in healthy habits, such as regular exercise, a balanced diet, and getting enough sleep, can help improve overall well-being and reduce the symptoms of BPD.

Supporting Someone with Borderline Personality Disorder

Supporting someone with BPD can be challenging, but there are several things you can do to help. Some tips for supporting someone with BPD include:

Set boundaries

Setting boundaries is an important aspect of supporting someone with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). People with BPD often struggle with intense emotions and may have difficulty regulating their behavior. As a result, they may engage in behaviors that are harmful to themselves or others. Setting boundaries can help to establish clear expectations and reduce the likelihood of harmful behavior. Learn how to say no to someone with borderline personality disorder.

Educate yourself

Educating oneself about Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is an essential step in supporting someone with the condition. Learning about the symptoms, causes, and treatments of BPD can help reduce misunderstandings and stigma, improve communication, and provide insight into what your loved one is experiencing.

Encourage professional help

Encouraging someone with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) to seek professional help can be a crucial step in their recovery journey. Professional help can provide individuals with BPD the necessary tools to manage their symptoms, improve their well-being, and lead a fulfilling life.

It is important to acknowledge the struggles that come with BPD, and to normalize seeking help for mental health issues. Letting the person know that it is not uncommon to experience mental health issues and that seeking help is a sign of strength and self-care is crucial.

Offering support is also an essential aspect of encouraging someone with BPD to seek professional help. One way to support them is to help them find a mental health professional or accompany them to their appointments. This can help to reduce feelings of anxiety or fear about attending appointments. An Orillia counselling therapist can help you with a referral.


In conclusion, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a complex and often misunderstood condition that can have a significant impact on an individual’s well-being and relationships. Understanding the symptoms, causes, and treatments of BPD is essential for supporting someone with the condition and reducing the stigma surrounding mental health.

Psychotherapy is a common and effective treatment for BPD, and different types of therapy, such as Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and Psychodynamic Therapy, may be used to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being. Medication and lifestyle changes, such as engaging in healthy habits, may also be helpful in treating specific symptoms of BPD.

Supporting someone with BPD can be challenging, but educating oneself, encouraging professional help, setting boundaries, and reducing stigma can all be helpful steps in providing effective and compassionate support. By promoting understanding, empathy, and support, we can help reduce the impact of BPD on individuals and their loved ones and promote more positive outcomes for all. Contact a counselling therapist in Barrie if you require a referral to professional help.  

Michael Caine

Michael Caine is the Owner of Amir Articles and also the founder of ANO Digital (Most Powerful Online Content Creator Company), from the USA, studied MBA in 2012, love to play games and write content in different categories.