The state trait anger expression inventory (STAXI) provides concise measures of the experience and expression of anger. The STAXI was developed for two primary reasons to provide a method of assessing components of anger that could be used for detailed evaluations of normal and abnormal personality and to provide a means of measuring the contribution various components of anger to the development medical conditions, including hypertension, coronary heart disease and cancer.
Composition and Concept Of STAXI:
The experience of anger, as measured by the STAXI, is conceptualized as having two major components state and trait anger. State anger is defined as an emotional state marked by subjective feelings that vary in intensity from mild annoyance or irritation of intense fury and rage state angers generally accompanied by muscular tension and arousal of the atomic nervous system. Over time, the intensity of state anger varies as functions of perceived injustice, attack or unfair treatment by others, and frustration resulting from barriers to goal directed behavior. Trait anger is defined as the disposition of perceive a wide range of situations as annoying or frustrating, and the tendency to respond to such situations with more frequent elevations in solve anger individuals high in trait anger experience state anger more often and with greater intensity than individuals law in trait anger.
State and Trait Anger: Conceptual Issues
Anger, hostility and aggression are vital concepts in many theories of personality. Although numerous studies testify to the negative impacts s of anger and hostility on physical and psychological wellbeing, definitions of these constructs have been ambiguous and sometimes contradictory. Moreover anger, hostility and aggression are often used interchangeably in the research literature, creating conceptual confusion that is currently reflected in an assortment of measurement techniques of questionable validity.
Anger is generally considered to be more elementary concepts than either hostility or aggression. The concept of anger usually refers to an emotional state that comprises feelings that vary in intensity from mild annoyance or aggression to fury and rage, and that are accompanied by arousal of autonomic nervous system. Although hostility usually involves angry feelings, this concept has the connotation of a complex set of feelings and attitudes that motivate aggressive and often vindictive behavior. While anger and hostility both refers to feelings and attitudes, the concept of aggression is generally used to describe destructive and punitive behavior. Given these definitional conventions, it follows that emotion of anger is necessary but not sufficient condition of the development of hostile attitudes and the manifestation of aggressive behavior.
Behavioral and Psychological Correlation:
The behavioral and physiological correlates of hostility and anger and aggression have been investigated in numerous studied. In contrast, the phenomenology of anger as defined by the experience of angry feelings has been largely neglected in psychological research. Moreover, psychometric measure of hostility confounds angry feelings with expression of anger in aggressive behavior. Furthermore, the state-trait distinction has typically not been taken into account in the measurement of anger and hostility.
Evidences and Validity of Measures:
On the basis of comprehensive review of measure of anger, Biaggio et all. (1981) concluded that evidence of the validity of these measures was both fragmentary and limited. It was also apparent that the phenomena assessed by the existing scales was heterogeneous and complex. A coherent theoretical framework that distinguished between anger, hostility and aggression as psychological concepts, and that explicitly recognized the state-trait distinction, appeared to be required in order to develop and validate a psychometric measure of anger.
Distinguishing anger from hostility and aggression:
The research program on personality assessment revealed that clearer and more precise conceptual definitions of anger were needed to guide the construction of new scales. Distinguishing anger from hostility and aggression as well as differentiating trait and state anger was a prerequisite to constructing scales to assess the experience of anger. In research on the etiology of medical disorders, the expressions of anger emerged as an important variable to be distinguished from the experience of angry feelings.
The consolidation of scales assessing state and trait anger with measures topping aspects of anger expression was not an original research goal. While early research with each set of scales proceeded relatively independently, it became apparent that the comprehensive assessment of anger would require several related yet independent scales. For this reason, the conceptual background and the procedures for constructing the state-trait anger scale and anger expression scales are described separately.
Ways to Control Stress and Anger – Some Precautions:
Keep your self in a relaxing mood:
Do practice yoga, meditate, try to practice some relaxing techniques. Listening to music can also help you equally. Try avoiding stepping into baseless problems.
Take care of your diet
Do not skip any meals. Avoid junks and do keep yourself intact with energy boosting snacks on hand.
Lower the ratio of Alcohol and Caffeine
Alcohol is the major cause of triggering panic attacks and it also aggravate anxiety. Try buying xanax 2mg online as an alternate.
Do not sleep deprived:
When stressed, your body needs additional sleep and rest. 8 hours sleep will keep you healthy and happy.
- Try to be happy every time
It is not possible for anyone to be a perfectionist. However, you can be happy and proud in how close you get.
- Accept the reality that everything is not in your hand.
Put your stress in perspective: Is it really as bad as you think? Try to be optimistic in different matters of life. Your life would become easier.
- Always welcome humor.
A good laugh goes a long way.
Practicing little things in your life you allow you get rid of different stress and anxiety traits and your life would be happier and contented, you have never expected before.