Persian Rug: An Emblem of Art & Culture
A Persian rug is famous for eye-catching design, flourishing colors and exquisite craftsmanship. This is also called the Iranian carpet, but as Persia is a historical part of Iran, people still call it the Persian rug. Persian rugs have a wide variety of carpets designs that represent the history of Iran. From household use, Persian rugs are now recognizable art pieces in the world.
History of Persian Rug
Carpet weaving was not that much known in the past; rugs were just objected to using. Later those were developed for floor covering. They used to make a flat surface having no extra strands, and this technique was called ‘flat weaving.’ After that loop technique came, weft strings were pulled over a gauge rod, and a loop of the thread was created facing the weaver. Then the rug is made by either removing the rod and leaving the loops closed or cutting the loops over the rod. Rugs were made by hand, and the tradition of hand-weaving still exists, making the Persian rug more expensive than others.
Sheep’s wool is used in most Persian rugs. Depending on the area condition, the quality of sheep wool varies. Because the thickness of sheep’s hair varies from area to area, that’s why different regions have different types of wool.
People used to use wool as the foundation of the rug. But now, for the foundation of warp and wefts, cotton is used in modern rugs. For making the larger rug, cotton is better as the foundation as wool tends to shrink.
Silk has been used for representative carpets; it’s an expensive material. These are usually used for decorative products or pillows as silk is not resistant to mechanical stress.
Depending on the type of rug, fibers are taken, then spun by hand or machine, and then dyed. Traditional dyes are used in Persian rugs, obtained from plants and insects.
Design & format
Carpet designs look like ornaments made of strings. We may see basic design dominating the entire rug, or repeated pattern figures may cover the carpet. Some traditional rug designs are related to Persian nomad tribes. In Islamic designs, there is no figure of animal or human. Writing and ornament are mainly focused on Islamic art. In most Persian rugs, there is a main & minor border. On the inside, a design is repeated all over the rug.
- Ghali: These are large carpets( 190 cm x 280cm)
- Dojar/ Sedjadeh- The name came from the Persian word ‘Do’ means two, and zar meaning Persian, measures about 105 cm. These are approximately 130-140cm.
- Ghalitcheh- These are good quality Dojar rugs.
- Kelly/ Kellighi- These are long format carpets, approximately 150-200 cm x 300-600 cm. This is traditionally kept at the head of a Ghali rug.
- Kenareh- Smaller carpets, having the format of 80-120 cm x 250-600 cm. This is traditionally laid along the longer side of a large carpet.
- Zaroniam- This is also a smaller rug, length about 150m.
Why is Persian rug special?
Persian rugs have a long history of more than 2500 years and are still glorified with their excellent quality and beauty. Handwoven Persian rugs are still ahead of others in the carpet market. If one looks at a Blue and Red Persian rug, and he is not amazed by its beauty, that’s not possible. Persian rugs are so unique. Each weaver is different from another. These are not just floor covering; they resemble the art and culture of generations.