The American Civil War was a long and bloody armed conflict in the United States that lasted four years. The eleven southern states that made up the Confederate States of America clashed with the federal government and the rest of the united states between 1861 and 1865. It is estimated that this War, also recently called the War between the States, killed more than a million people. In addition to the severe loss of human life among soldiers and civilians, there has been a significant loss of property and economic damage to millions.
Outbreak of the Civil War (1861)
As this topic is essential in education, there are many essay examples so that you can study this historical period in detail. Also, if you are interested in history, you can try to travel abroad and explore Civil War topic while your history course. It’s a difficult decision, so to choose a university to study. And you can read the civil war essays, and the essay will help you with your decision.
Using the labor of enslaved people, they were not interested in reforming the social system.
Over time, the contradictions between the North and the South were compounded by the federal government’s tax policy. Shortly after Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln, an opponent of slavery, was elected President of the United States on November 9, 1860, South Carolina announced its withdrawal from the United States. Over the next six weeks, the states of Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed suit. The separate states formed the Confederacy, began an interim government on February 8, 1861, and Jefferson Davis was elected President of the United States Confederation. His constitution confirmed the legitimacy of slavery. So, it was the origin of War.
The Civil War in Virginia (1862)
The first battle occurred in Virginia on July 21, 1861. Poorly trained troops from the North attacked the South but were forced to retreat.
However, on the main front, in Virginia, the army of the North was unsuccessful: three times, it tried to capture the capital of the Confederate Richmond, but each time retreated with heavy losses. The successful counteroffensive of the Southern Army under Robert Lee was halted with incredible difficulty. The situation changed in mid-1862 when the blockade of the South began to undermine its economy, especially when Lincoln signed the “Proclamation of Liberation”.
After the Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
The “Proclamation of Liberation” came into force on January 1. Аll enslaved people in the United States were declared free and began to enlist in the army of the North. Earlier, in May, the Homesteads Act was passed. Regardless of skin color, any citizen could pay a $ 10 fee, occupy a 160-acre plot of land, and become its owner after five years of continuous residence. It changed the very idea of the Civil War – it turned into a war for the destruction of slavery. The last major victory in the Army of the South was in May 1863 at the Battle of Chancellorsville, when Army General Robert Lee was defeated twice by the Potomac Army of the United States under Joseph Hooker. However, after the defeat at Gettysburg in July 1863, when the Southern Army lost 23,000 men, including a third of the officers, the U.S. military was utterly undermined.
Toward a Union Victory (1864-65)
In the autumn of 1864, Atlanta, one of the largest industrial centers in the South, was captured. On April 9, 1865, the capital of the South, Richmond, after which the scattered remnants of the Confederate army began to surrender. The mortally wounded President Lincoln died on April 14, 1865. He was shot dead by one of the conspirators who, by assassinating the President, Vice President, and Secretary of State of the United States, paralyzed the power structures of the North. However, the next day, Andrew Johnson, who escaped the assassination attempt, became the 17th President of the United States and, on May 9, 1865, officially declared the end of the Civil War. The next day, U.S. President Jefferson Davis and members of his government were arrested – the Confederacy of Southern States ceased to exist. The last battle of the US Civil War took place on May 12-13, when the remnants of the Southern Army won the battle near the Palmito Ranch (Texas) and moved to Mexico.
The losses during the Civil War amounted to 360 thousand killed and 275 thousand wounded from the North and 258 and 137 thousand, respectively, from the South. The prohibition of slavery was enshrined in the 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which came into force on December 18, 1865, 246 years after the first state of enslaved Negroes in Virginia. This historical period is essential, so every modern student in every college should learn history not to repeat mistakes and to build a successful future.