Biomedical Waste Management in the time of Corona-Virus

India has been not able to take care of the 600 tons of biomedical waste produced daily. With all the COVID-19 closing its grip on the country, India has listed 4.1 million instances amounting to the 2nd greatest number of COVID-19 instances on earth. The good thing of ill-handling of this biomedical waste is a daily event, as heaps of biomedical waste maintain piling up throughout the country since the disposal centers reach their hardness degrees.

COVID-19 which has been discovered at the Wuhan City of China in December this past year, has unfortunately transformed into a worldwide pandemic claiming over 8 lakh lives around the globe until date. No vaccine or medication has been invented for taming the lethal virus. The COVID-19 outbreak, unintentionally touching every idea of human presence, has posed severe challenges in each domain, and the environment is no exception. The inevitable and exponential usage of Personal Protection Equipment such as the masks, gloves and other medical equipment such as syringes, razor blades, IVs, aprons etc. creates hazardous waste, increasing worrisome worries over its proper segregation and disposal. Before this COVID-19 catastrophe, India only needed the infrastructure for disposing of just 70 percent of the typical biomedical waste, and today with the present crisis, the issue has shown in a completely new level.

The health risks because of improper waste management can’t just impact the occupants in associations but also spread in the neighborhood of the associations. Occupational health issues exist for laundry and janitorial employees, nurses, emergency medical personnel, and deny employees. Injuries from sharps and vulnerability to dangerous chemical waste and radioactive waste also lead to health risks to workers in associations creating bio-medical waste. The issue of occupational health risks because of bio-medical waste is ‘not treated as there is insufficient information.


It’s of extreme importance to know the ambit of biomedical waste (“BMW”), the national legislation regulating it, and also to do our bit to prevent any further ecological degradation catastrophe after COVID-19 Outbreak in India. In the end, educated citizens can always end up being an advantage to the country in these tumultuous times.

It follows the cradle to grave approach that’s characterization, quantification, segregation, storage, transportation, and treatment for BMW. BMW disposal and treatment facility means any facility in which therapy, disposal of BMW, or procedures incidental to such disposal and treatment is performed.


Waste handling and disposal of BMW have created a statutory requirement in 1998 from the Central Government. The Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 1998 principles were altered in 2000, 2003, 2011, and 2016 to bring more stringent legislation and controlling the surroundings associated issues. Submission of a yearly report by each occupier or operator of an average bio-medical waste treatment center was made compulsory under Rule 13(1) of Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016.


More recent waste treatment facilities like plasma pyrolysis, encapsulation, and interstation are released, aside from the older centers like incineration that are detrimental to the environment and health. It’s now compulsory for every single health facility to obtain authorization from the prescribed jurisdiction.



The Central Government recently revised the Biomedical Waste Management Rules, 2016 for the next time in an attempt to bring stricter legislation for the usage of their Bio-medical waste. This revised guidelines issued on 21 July 2020 supply that there ought to be segregation of overall solid waste and biomedical waste out of quarantine facilities / home-care/healthcare centers treating COVID-19 sufferers and advocate on disposal of PPEs.


Temporary Healthcare Facilities like railroad trainer wards, COVID Care Centers etc., have been contained at the COVID-19 isolation wards and need to stick to the strict guidelines for biomedical waste disposal created during the treatment.


The moist and dry good waste bags must be tied firmly within leak-proof bags, sprayed with sodium hypochlorite solution and handed to authorized waste lovers of ULB’s on a daily basis. Yellow colored bags shouldn’t be used for collecting overall solid waste.


Used sprays, toiletries and tissues of COVID-19 sufferers must be considered as biomedical waste and needs to be assessed in yellow bags.


Segregation of biomedical waste and overall solid waste needs to be performed at the stage of production inwards/isolation rooms. There ought to not be segregation of biomedical waste and solid waste in temporary waste collection/storage regions of the Healthcare Facility to ensure occupational safety.


Duties of men working in Quarantine Centres / Camps / Home Quarantine / Home-care centers:

Just the utilized masks, gloves, and cells or swabs infected with blood/ body fluids of COVID-19 sufferers, such as used syringes, medications, etc., if any created ought to be treated as biomedical waste.

Masks and gloves employed by persons aside from COVID-19 patients must be kept in a paper bag for at least 72 hours before disposal of exactly the very same as overall waste following cutting the exact same to reduce reuse.


Obligations of Urban Local Bodies


ULBs should guarantee that overall solid waste and biomedical waste generated by quarantine decks / quarantine houses / Home Care isn’t mixed.


Waste collectors arriving at home facilities or in home maintenance can spray the disinfectant (1% sodium hypochlorite solution) about the solid waste luggage along with also the bin used for yellow bags.


General solid waste could be disposed according to SWM Rules, 2016, which might consist of disposal in landfills, waste to energy plants, based on infrastructure. Accessibility to landfills sites ought to be rigorously limited.


Disposal of employed PPEs


Discarded PPEs from the public at commercial institutions, shopping malls, associations, offices,etc. must be saved in a separate bin for 3 times, then disposed of as tender general solid waste following cutting/shredding.


At Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs), spilled PPEs comprising plastic ought to be shredded and delivered to SPCB authorized plastic waste recyclers, or could possibly be transformed into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to get co-processing or energy recovery (from Waste to Energy Plants) or for road making.


PPEs utilized by health care employees accompanying diseased body of COVID-19 individual to crematorium/ graveyard ought to be treated as biomedical waste and disposed of according to criteria under SWM Rules, 2016 and BMW Management Rules, 2016.


Used masks from traffic to crematorium/graveyard such as crematorium personnel ought to be collected in different bins and kept for 72 hours before disposal as dry general solid waste through local bodies.


Insufficient infrastructure

Since the COVID-19 cases are still sore, the current 198 Frequent Bio-Medical Waste Treatment Facilities (CBMWTFs) and 225 captive incinerators at India are nowhere close to tackling the ever-increasing biomedical waste created to a dayto-day foundation. The nation’s infrastructure that was already inadequate preCOVID has crippled beneath the exponential BMW created during COVID-19. Similar illness was seen in Mumbai in which BMW generated has basically dropped from June-August.

Security Concerns of Sanitation Workers — The five million sanitation employees in India forming the frontline warriors execute valuable duties of cleansing the roads, collecting and disposing garbage, draining septic tanks in addition to handling biohazards. Virtually all of the sanitation employees live in informal settlements with higher population density. Therefore, the danger of spread of this deadly virus gets multifold.

The advisory titled Safe Management of Water Supply and Sanitation Services throughout COVID-19 emergency, April 2020 published by MoHUA according to international guidelines has turned out to be ineffective since it misses the neighborhood circumstance. No PPE, rubber gloves, reusable mask, gumboots, or security coat are supplied uniformly into the sanitation employees that are shockingly made to execute their responsibilities without adequate equipment.


Flu contamination

When the biomedical waste isn’t properly segregated in the originating factors, it triggers a domino-like influence on the surroundings which demonstrates danger to human beings, creatures, in addition to dirt and water resources.

Improper segregation and disposal of biomedical waste may result in the contamination of groundwater resources that then consumed by people and animals can result in significant infections. Improper onsite or off-road incineration contributes to environmental dangers related to the contamination of the atmosphere through harmful airborne particles. Air pollutants that get disseminated over enormous areas of populated land have the capacity to activate numerous diseases.


Plights of those invisible Indians‘ —

A recent study published in the New England Journal of Medicine has suggested that the virus remains on cardboard for approximately 24 hours and about plastics and stainless steel for approximately 72 hours. An estimated ragpickers’ workforce of 1.5 to 4.0 million in our nation performs garbage collection, recycling, and sorting. If not educated or their security problems dealt with, their health could be placed in danger.



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